Swachh Bharat Abhiyan or Swachh Bharat Mission

Launched on the 2nd of October 2014 to pay tribute to the preeminent leader of the Indian Independence Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary in 2019. The Swachh Bharat Mission was launched by our honourable Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Rajpath in New Delhi. The mission was launched throughout the nation as a national movement.

The program has now become a ‘Jan Andolan’ that has been receiving a huge amount of support from the people. Simultaneously other programs like the #MyCleanIndia was also launched as a part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan to highlight the cleanliness work that is being carried out by the citizens across the nation, along with ‘Mission Prabhughat’ a group of volunteers in Varanasi.


The History of Sanitation India 

  1. The rural sanitation program in India was first launched in 1954 as a part of the First Five-Year Plan of the Government of India. While in 1981 the records revealed that only 1% of drinking water was being sanitised. This lead to the International Decade of Drinking water and sanitation during 1981-90. The Government of India then brought in the Central Rural Sanitation Program in 1986 with the objective to improve the quality of life of the rural people and also to add a privacy of women dignity.
  2. To generate awareness on sanitation, the Government started the Nirmal Gram Puraskar to motivate and recognise the achievements and efforts made in ensuring full sanitation in the nation. This caught the attention of a lot of people for attaining Nirmal Status.
  3. The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan launched 1st April 2012 was the successor of the Total Sanitation Campaign was launched in 1999. The complete objective was to accelerate the movement on sanitising the rural areas through renewed strategies.
  4. Later in 2014 the Prime Minister of India launched the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan assigning the Secretary, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation with two Sub-Missions the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) which aims to achieve total sanitation by 2019 as tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, which in rural areas should mean improving the levels of cleanliness through Solid and Waste Management Schemes and make Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free, clean and sanitized.


The Goal to achieve “Swachh Bharat” by 2019

  • To bring an improvement in the general quality of life in rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and elimination open defecation.
  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in the rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by the 2nd of October 2019.
  • To motivate people and Panchayati Raj institutions to adopt suitable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness and health education.
  • By encouraging cost effective and appropriate technologies for the ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • To develop community managed sanitation systems focusing on the Solid and Liquid Waste Management systems for an overall cleanliness in the rural areas.


The strategies to achievements

  • The focus of the strategy is to move towards achieving a Swachh Bharat by providing flexibility to State Governments, as sanitation is subject to state matter, the Government has prepared 3 important phases necessary for the program:
  • The planning phase includes:
  • Annual implementation plan
  • GP identification
  • Financial resource planning
  • Open defecation elimination plan
  • Design Implementation approach
  • Human resource forecasting
  • Staff/ consultants
  • Training/ orientation
  • The implementation phase:
  • Advocacy and communication
  • Mass Awareness raising
  • Social/ community mobilisation
  • IPC / IEC
  • Financing
  • Funds release to implementation unit
  • Toilet construction
  • Skilled masons
  • Supply chain
  • The sustainability phase:
  • Hygiene promotion
  • Schools, Anganwadis, Health
  • Follow-up
  • Hand Holding community for sustainability
  • Monitoring and evaluation
  • Spot checks, Audits, Community monitoring
  • Third party evaluations

A sum up on the mission

The Swachh Bharat Mission in urban areas is completely focused on building individual toilets, community toilets and solid waste management as well as keeping a clean city. The emphasis is on behavioural change intervention including interpersonal communication, strengthening implementations and delivery mechanisms to Gram Panchayat level to give the States in India a flexibility of design that takes into account the local cultures, practices, sensibility and demands. The building incentives have been raised from INR 2000 from INR 10000 to INR 12000. The funds are also being provided for Solid and Liquid Waste Management in Gram Panchayats.

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